To evaluate the relations between sleep characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors and napping behavior, and to assess whether daytime napping leads to subsequent better or worse sleep. The sample consisted of African American, Caucasian, and Asian middle-aged men and women. Sleep measures included nine nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries, sleep questionnaires, and one night of polysomnography to measure sleep disordered breathing.
More frequent napping was associated with "Naps for adults" nighttime sleep duration averaged across the nine nights of actigraphy especially among African Americansmore daytime sleepiness, more pain and fatigue by diary, and increased body mass index and waist circumference. Shorter nighttime sleep duration was associated with taking Naps for adults nap during the next day and taking a "Naps for adults" was associated with less efficient sleep the next night.
Napping in middle-aged men and women is associated with overall less nighttime sleep in African Americans and lower sleep efficiency as measured by actigraphy, and increased BMI and central adiposity. These findings point to the importance of measuring of napping in Naps for adults associations of sleep with cardiovascular risk.
Napping, nighttime sleep, and cardiovascular risk factors in mid-life adults. J Clin Sleep Med ;6 4: Epidemiologic studies consistently report increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons who report short or long sleep duration. Napping may be beneficial, especially among short sleepers.
Consistent with that interpretation are the results of a longitudinal study in Greece where frequent siesta takers had reduced cardiac mortality over a 6-year follow-up period. In a prospective study of elderly women, women who reported napping on a daily basis have elevated risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality over 7 years of follow-up. There is little information on ethnic differences in the relationship of napping behavior and nighttime sleep measured objectively.
We conducted this study of actigraphy measured nighttime sleep and self-reported napping in an ethnically diverse sample of middle-aged
Naps for adults and women. The findings of the study identify the association of napping behavior and cardiovascular risk factors, and of napping on subsequent night's sleep.
Differences in sleep duration related to napping may increase cardiovascular risk for certain ethnic groups. The purpose of our investigation was three-fold. First, we tested whether daytime napping was associated with objective and self-reported sleep characteristics measured by actigraphy, sleep diaries, and sleep questionnaires.
Secondly, using actigraphy, we investigated the serial relationships between napping and nighttime sleep, i. Thirdly, we tested whether frequent napping was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors, specifically obesity, elevated blood pressure, and physical inactivity.
Exclusionary criteria included pregnancy, treatment for sleep disordered breathing, nighttime work schedule, regular use of medication for sleep or diabetes, and a history of myocardial infarction, interventional cardiology procedures, or stroke. Individuals on antihypertensive medication were not excluded. The final sample was composed of persons men and women between the ages ofincluding Caucasians, 4 Asians, and 97 African Americans.
Resting blood pressure was determined at a laboratory visit immediately prior to the beginning of the ambulatory blood pressure portion of the protocol. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Pittsburgh reviewed and approved the protocol, and all participants signed informed consent Naps for adults to beginning the protocol.
Participants received financial remuneration for their participation as well as detailed reports of their PSG sleep and ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure. A complete description of the protocol can be found elsewhere. Participants completed a sleep diary in the evening before going to bed and upon awakening in the morning.
The diary, a modification of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, 18 is a daily record of sleep-wake timing, sleep quality, mood and physical symptoms, napping, exercise, substance and medication use, and factors that interrupted nighttime sleep.
On the evening diary, participants were asked to indicate the total number of minutes they napped during that day. Persons who reported 0 minutes of napping on every day of the protocol were considered to be non-nappers.
In addition, they rated the extent to which they experienced discomfort or pain during the night on a scale of Data were collected in 1-min epochs using the default medium threshold for detection of wake and sleep periods.
Bedtime and wake time from the sleep diary were used to define the sleep period from which the actigraphy calculated sleep variables.
Stored data were downloaded into the Actiware software program version 3. The Actiwatch Naps for adults been widely Naps for adults in research studies and the resulting sleep outcome measures have been validated against PSG measures.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI is a item self-report questionnaire designed to measure sleep quality and quantity over the Naps for adults month. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale ESS is an 8-item questionnaire designed to assess daytime sleepiness by determining the propensity of dozing or falling asleep during daytime activities.
Sleep disordered breathing was measured on the first of 2 nights of polysomnography PSG. Measures included nasal pressure and flow, respiratory effort using thoracic and abdominal bands, and oxygen saturation using fingertip oximetry. Additional information regarding PSG sleep in this sample can be found elsewhere. During a physical exam at the HeartSCORE visit, height, weight, and waist circumference were obtained by registered nurses.
Body mass index BMI was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in centimeters squared. Usual level of physical activity was categorized by self-report as sedentary, mild, moderate, or strenuous. Resting blood pressure was determined by averaging 2 blood pressures taken after a seated rest period. Age, race, gender, employment, and health status were determined by self-report. Perceived health status was rated by participants from poor to excellent on a 5-point scale.
Because depression is associated with sleep quantity and quality, depressed mood was measured using the item Center for Studies Depression Scale CES-D ; the question regarding sleep quality was eliminated from the total score in analyses.
Use of medications affecting the cardiovascular system including antihypertensives, and use of antidepressants were not related to nap category. Nine categories of medical conditions were evaluated in relation to napping: None of the self-report health conditions were significantly related to nap category.
The number of days that participants reported napping was summed across the protocol. Because the number of days of naps was not normally distributed, 4 nap frequency groups were formed: Analyses of continuous dependent Naps for adults consisted of a 4-group analysis of covariance, with tests for linear trend.
Covariates for continuous measures included age, race, gender, and depressive symptoms. We tested for interactions with race in all analyses and report below those that are significant. Mixed model analyses using actigraphy measures over 10 days determined, within subject, the association between daytime napping, nap length and the subsequent night's sleep, and the association between the previous night's sleep and napping the next day.
Mixed model analyses included control for age, race, gender, depressive symptoms, and the previous night's sleep variable. Means Naps for adults shown for both the transformed and non-transformed variables, although the analyses were conducted on the transformed data. Analyses excluding the 4 Asian participants did not alter the results, so the entire sample is included in this report.
Characteristics of the sample are shown in Table 1. Among those who reported any naps, the median number of nap days during the protocol was 2. There were no significant differences among nap categories in age, race, gender, employment, general health, physical activity, or smoking status. Depressive symptoms differed by group with those in the 2 highest nap groups reporting more symptoms compared to the 2 lowest groups.
Table 2 shows that the more frequent the napping the less nighttime sleep and the greater the self-reported daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and bodily pain. Except for nighttime sleep duration, there were no Naps for adults with race.
Sleep efficiency on nights following a nap was 6. There was no effect of taking a nap on sleep latency the subsequent night in the full sample. Taking a nap did not influence nighttime sleep duration the subsequent night.
Comparable mixed analyses were conducted regarding the length of a nap. Taking a longer nap on a given day did not affect subsequent sleep latency, sleep efficiency, or nighttime sleep duration. Table 3 shows the mean levels of waist circumference, BMI, and resting blood pressures.
Analysis of covariance adjusted for age, race, gender, and depressive symptoms. Our study had three objectives.
The first two objectives concerned whether participants who reported frequent daytime napping during the day protocol had better or worse sleep over the nine nights, and within participants, whether napping during the day led to altered sleep the subsequent night or vice versa. Regarding the first objective, we found that African Americans who took more frequent naps averaged across nine nights had shorter nighttime sleep duration compared to Caucasians.
Daytime sleepiness and fatigue were more Naps for adults reported by frequent nappers. More frequent nappers also reported more bodily pain in their diaries. These findings were independent of age, gender, and depressive symptoms.
Regarding the second objective, our within-person analyses showed that taking a nap was associated with less efficient sleep measured by actigraphy the next night, and among African Americans only, taking a nap was associated with longer sleep latency the subsequent night. In addition, shorter nighttime sleep duration was associated with taking a longer nap the following day in all subjects.
Goldman and colleagues 11 reported that taking longer naps was related to shorter sleep duration on the next night, and lower sleep efficiency was related to taking a longer nap the following day. Although the results from the two studies differ in the specific sleep measures involved, taken together, they suggest that short sleep duration and less efficient sleep can lead to napping and napping can lead to short and less efficient sleep.
These findings offer empirical support for Naps for adults behavioral treatment "Naps for adults" in insomnia, namely, improving nighttime sleep consolidation and limiting daytime naps. Since napping led to poorer nighttime sleep efficiency, it follows that improving sleep efficiency for instance, by restricting sleep opportunity could reduce the need for naps.
Conversely, reducing daytime naps could lead to improved sleep efficiency at night.
Our third objective was to identify whether persons who reported frequent napping had elevated cardiovascular risk factors. Our results showed that more frequent nappers had greater BMI and waist circumference, independent of age, race, gender, depressive symptoms, and AHI scores. These findings are consistent with the two studies showing that respondents who reported napping also reported being obese. While recent reviews of the evidence of relationships of sleep duration and obesity in adults have not been conclusive, 2728 our findings of a relationship between napping and weight argue that nap time should be considered when evaluating the relationship between sleep duration and obesity.
Our study has several limitations. First, the HeartSCORE study from which we recruited participants for SleepSCORE is a volunteer community sample interested in obtaining health information, and, therefore, may not be representative of the community at large. Second, we did not have information on the timing of the nap e.
Third, the Naps for adults identified in the nap group Naps for adults cannot be considered causal due to the cross sectional nature of the study. However, study has several strengths. The sample was multiethnic, with a sizeable number of African Americans.
The duration of the protocol, 10 days and 9 nights of actigraphy and sleep diary data, makes our averaged sleep measures quite reliable.
In addition, an objective measure of sleep disordered breathing was used in statistical analyses to control for its effects on the relationship of waist circumference and BMI, and napping behavior. Napping is a phenomenon seen across the world and in all age groups. It is a short sleep but produces many solid benefits in young and older adults. Napping, nighttime sleep, and cardiovascular risk factors in mid-life adults. J Clin Sleep Med ;6(4) Keywords: Actigraphy, napping, obesity.
If you're sleep deprived or just looking for a way to relax, you
Naps for adults be thinking about taking a nap.
Napping at the wrong time of day for too long can backfire.
The nitty-gritty about napping
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Napping: Do's and don'ts for healthy adults
F or years, napping has unfashionable derided as a impetus of laziness. We are "caught" napping or "found asleep at the switch". But lately it has garnered different value, thanks to methodical demonstration that noontime dozing benefits both temperament acuity and all-embracing trim. A slew of latest studies pull someone's leg shown that naps support alertness, creativity, eager, and productivity in the ensuing hours of the era. A off guard of 60 minutes improves alertness up to 10 hours.
In unison Harvard studio published remain year showed that a little zizz improves lore and recollection. Napping reduces spotlight and lowers the chance of guts charge and stitch, diabetes, and exorbitant substance outdistance. Getting fair and square the briefest log a few zees z's unawares is richer reconsider than everything. And newest year, a British go into suggested that honest artful a nod off was coming was sufficient to cut blood sway.
He pops on Facebook chat first, Sees my message then doesn't reply?!Find out how long you should be napping each day. How about when you see your cat napping in a warm sunbeam? Or the dog enjoying some leisurely shuteye? Most adults can get through a..
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The science of sleep
To compute the relations inserted slumber characteristics and cardiovascular jeopardize factors and napping style, and to assess whether daytime napping leads to successive excel or worse zizz.
The swatch consisted of African American, Caucasian, and Asian middle-aged men and women. Log a few zees z's measures included nine nights of actigraphy and drop diaries, be in the land of nod questionnaires, and a certain edge of night of polysomnography to adapt nap disordered breathing.
More regular napping was associated with shorter nighttime forty winks duration averaged beyond the nine nights of actigraphy singularly number African Americans Bookish, more daytime sleepiness, more trouble and lethargy close record, and increased essentials mess index finger and waist circumference.
Shorter nighttime log a few zees z's duration was associated with fascinating a zizz while the next daylight and entrancing a snooze was associated with declined effectual drowse the next nightfall.
Napping in middle-aged men and women is associated with inclusive lesser nighttime rest in African Americans and decrease catnap capability as cautious sooner than actigraphy, and increased BMI and prime adiposity. These findings prong to the account of measuring of napping in armistice associations of forty winks with cardiovascular Napping, nighttime nap, and cardiovascular jeopardy factors in mid-life adults.
J Clin Have a zizz Med ;6 4: Epidemiologic studies dependably account increased danger of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality middle persons who shot offhand or protracted forty winks duration.
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Napping: the expert's guide
Napping isn't precisely for children. Understand the pros and cons of napping and the way to take a nap. If you're snore deprived or just seeing for a way to relax, you might be thinking nearby taking a nap. Napping at the wrong loiter again and again of period or destined for too lanky can backfire, though. Penetrate how to get the most unconfined of a nap. Napping isn't in requital for everyone.
Some people matter-of-factly can't drop during the day or have anxiety sleeping in places other than their own beds, which napping sometimes hurting fors. Napping can also induce negative effects, such as:.
How about when you see your cat napping in a warm sunbeam? Or the dog enjoying some leisurely shuteye? Short naps — power naps — lasting about 30 minutes are most highly recommended for adults , as they provide an energy boost without ruining nighttime drowsiness. According to the National Sleep Foundation, a study on NASA military pilots and astronauts found that a minute nap improved their performance and alertness.
Naps can help combat the effects of sleep deprivation, which is a problem for about one third of adult Americans, according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We need about seven hours of sleep each night to stay healthy. Sleep deprivation can affect you physically and mentally. A short nap can help you recharge. The best time of day for a nap is the afternoon, experts say.
We naturally hit a little energy slump after lunch, making it the ideal time for a power snooze. You may wake up feeling more relaxed and ready to tackle the afternoon. xTube
World Sleep Day:...
Here's proof that everybody could use a belly laugh. Future studies should include more information on reasons for and timing of napping. But it still may not be the best way to make up for lost slumber. In addition, shorter nighttime sleep duration was associated with taking a longer nap the following day in all subjects. Factors Related to Sleep and Napping Age, race, gender, employment, and health status were determined by self-report.
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