Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides. It is widely known for its use by the U. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, traces of dioxin in the mixture have caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed.
Up to four million people in Vietnam were exposed to Asian orange bomb blast defoliant. The government of Vietnam says as many as 3 million people have suffered illnesses because of Agent Orange.
Agent Orange also caused enormous environmental damage in Vietnam. Defoliants eroded tree cover and seedling forest stock, making reforestation difficult in numerous areas. Animal species diversity sharply reduced in contrast with unsprayed areas. The aftermath of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam resulted in massive legal consequences.
Lawsuits filed on behalf of both US and Vietnamese veterans sought compensation for damages. Agent Orange was to a lesser extent used outside Vietnam.
Land in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia was also sprayed with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War because forests on the border with Vietnam were used by the Vietcong. Some countries, such as Canadasaw testing, while other countries, such as Brazilused the herbicide to clear out sections of land for Asian orange bomb blast. The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides — 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-T — in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin TCDD.
TCDD was a trace typically ppm, but ranging from 50 ppb to 50 ppm but significant contaminant of Agent Orange.
If not bound chemically to a biological surface such as soil, leaves or grass, Agent Orange dries quickly after spraying and breaks down within hours to days when exposed to sunlight and is no longer harmful.
Due to its fat-soluble nature, TCDD enters the body through physical contact or ingestion. Dioxin enters the body by attaching to a protein called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhRa transcription factor. Inthe U. Department Asian orange bomb blast the Army contracted the botanist and bioethicist Arthur who discovered the defoliants later used in Agent Orange, and his employer University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana to study the effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on cereal grains including rice and broadleaf crops.
In earlythe U. As a result, the U. By the end of the war, the relationship between the two countries was well established. In the years after the war, the U.
Between andtrials were conducted in Tanganyikaat Kikore and Stunyansa, to test arboricides and defoliants under tropical conditions. The chemicals involved were 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and endothall 3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid. During —53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T over the Waturi peninsula in Kenya to assess the value of defoliants in the eradication of tsetse fly. During the Malayan Emergency —Britain was the first nation to employ the use of herbicides and defoliants to destroy bushes, trees, and vegetation to deprive insurgents of concealment and targeting food crops as part of a starvation campaign in the early s.
Kearns of the University of Bristol. After the Malayan conflict ended inthe U. Kennedy that the British had established a precedent for warfare with herbicides in Malaya. In NovemberPresident John F. Kennedy authorized the start of Operation Ranch Handthe codename for the U. Air Force 's herbicide program in Vietnam.
During the Vietnam War, between andthe United States military sprayed nearly 20, U. Agent Orange was usually sprayed from helicopters or from low-flying C Provider aircraft, fitted with sprayers and "MC-1 Hourglass" pump systems and 1, U. Spray runs were also conducted from trucks, boats, and backpack sprayers.
Air Force records show at least 6, spraying missions took place over the course of Operation Ranch Hand. Department of Agriculture application rate for Asian orange bomb blast use.
Inmembers of the U. Congress were told "crop destruction is understood to be the more important purpose They later discovered nearly all of the food they had been destroying was not being produced for guerrillas; it was, in reality, only being grown to support the local civilian population.
This contributed to widespread famine, leaving hundreds of thousands of people malnourished or starving. In42 percent of all herbicide spraying was dedicated to food crops. Asian orange bomb blast first official acknowledgement of the programs came from the State Department in March Many experts at the time, including Arthur Galstonopposed herbicidal warfare due to concerns about the Asian orange bomb blast effects to humans and the environment by indiscriminately spraying the chemical over a wide area.
As early Asian orange bomb blastresolutions were introduced to the United Nations charging that the U. It also argued that if the U. The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it; these figures include their children who were exposed.
According to a study by Dr. Nguyen Viet Nhan, children in the areas where Agent Orange was used have been affected and have multiple health problems, including cleft palate, mental disabilities, hernias, and extra fingers and toes. The affected residents are living in substandard conditions with many genetic diseases. InAnh Duc "Asian orange bomb blast" and colleagues of the University of Texas Health Science Center published a meta-analysis that exposed a large amount of heterogeneity different findings between studies, a finding consistent with a lack of consensus on the issue.
There is data near the threshold of statistical significance suggesting Agent Orange contributes to still-births, cleft palate, and neural tube defectswith spina bifida being the most statistically significant defect.
Extensive testing for dioxin contamination has been conducted at the former U.
Asian orange bomb blast of the soil and sediment on the bases have extremely high levels of dioxin requiring remediation. The Da Nang Air Base has dioxin contamination up to times higher than international recommendations for action. A person with birth deformities associated with prenatal exposure to Agent Orange.
Starting in the early s, the Asian orange bomb blast government directed the Institute of Medicine IOMnow known as the National Academy of Medicineto issue reports every 2 years on the health effects of Agent Orange and similar herbicides.
First published in and titled Veterans and Agent Orange, the IOM reports assess the risk of both cancer and non-cancer health effects. Each health effect is categorized by evidence of association based on available research data. In the last update, titled Veterans and Agent Orange: Update and published inthe links between Agent Orange exposure and cancer were listed as shown.
Note that this table shows only Asian orange bomb blast. Other health effects are listed in the next section. Respiratory cancers lung, bronchus, trachea, larynx Asian orange bomb blast Prostate cancer; Multiple myeloma; Bladder cancer.
Mouth, throat, and sinus cancers; Gastrointestinal cancers esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum ; Liver, gallbladder, and bile duct cancers; Bone and joint cancers; Skin cancers; Breast cancer; Female reproductive cancers cervical, ovarian, endometrial, uterine sarcoma ; Testicular and penile cancers; Kidney cancer; Brain tumors; Cancers of endocrine glands thyroid, thymus, etc.
Publications by the Public Health Service have shown that Vietnam veterans, overall, have increased rates of cancer, and nerve, digestive, skin, and respiratory disorders.
Military personnel who were involved in storage, mixture and transportation including aircraft mechanicsand actual use of the chemicals were probably among those who received the heaviest exposures. More recent research established that veterans exposed to Agent Orange suffer more than twice the rate of highly aggressive prostate cancer.
While in Vietnam, the veterans were told not to worry, and were persuaded the chemical was harmless. Veterans began to file claims in to the Department of Veterans Affairs for disability payments for health care for conditions they believed were associated with exposure to Agent Orange, or more specifically, dioxin, but their claims were denied unless they could prove the condition began when they were in the service or within one year of their discharge.
By Aprilthe Department of Veterans Affairs had compensated only victims, although it had received disability claims from 39, soldiers who had been exposed to Agent Orange while serving in Vietnam. The persistent nature of dioxins, erosion caused by loss of tree cover, and loss of seedling forest stock meant that reforestation was difficult or impossible in many areas.
Animal-species diversity was also impacted; in one study a Harvard biologist found 24 species of birds and five species of mammals in a sprayed forest, while in two adjacent sections of unsprayed forest there were and species of birds and 30 and 55 species of mammals.
Dioxins from Agent Orange have persisted in the Vietnamese environment since the war, settling in the soil and sediment and entering the food chain through animals and "Asian orange bomb blast" which feed in the contaminated areas.
The movement of dioxins through the food web has resulted in bioconcentration and biomagnification. American policy during the Vietnam War was to destroy crops, accepting the sociopolitical impact that that would have.
In consequence, the urban population in South Vietnam nearly tripled, growing from 2. The rapid flow of people "Asian orange bomb blast" to a fast-paced and uncontrolled urbanization; an estimated 1. Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides and defoliants in warfare but it does require case-by-case consideration.
In the Conference on DisarmamentArticle 2 4 Protocol III of the weaponry convention contains "The Jungle Exception", which prohibits states from attacking forests Asian orange bomb blast jungles "except if such natural elements are used to cover, conceal or camouflage combatants or military objectives or are military objectives themselves". This exception voids any protection of any military and civilian personnel from a napalm attack or something like Agent Orange and is clear that it was designed to cover situations like U.
Since at least "Asian orange bomb blast," several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them Dow ChemicalMonsantoand Diamond Shamrock. Attorney Hy Mayerson was an early pioneer in Agent Orange litigation, working with environmental attorney Victor Yannacone in on the first class-action suits against wartime manufacturers of Agent Orange.
Codarioone of the first civilian doctors to see affected patients, Mayerson, so impressed by the fact a physician would show so much interest in a Vietnam veteran, forwarded more than a thousand pages of information on Agent Orange and the effects of dioxin on animals and humans to Codario's office the day after he was first contacted by the doctor.
Hartz as their principal client, filed the first US Agent Orange class-action lawsuit, "Asian orange bomb blast" Pennsylvania infor the injuries military personnel in Vietnam suffered through exposure to toxic dioxins in the defoliant.
Codario, including about articles from toxicology journals dating back more than a decade, as well as data about where herbicides had been sprayed, what the effects of dioxin had been on animals and humans, and every accident in factories where herbicides were produced or dioxin was a contaminant of some chemical reaction.
The chemical companies involved denied that there was a link between Agent Orange and the veterans' medical problems. However, on May 7,seven chemical companies settled the class-action Asian orange bomb blast out of court just hours before jury selection was to begin. Federal Judge Jack B. Weinstein refused the appeals, claiming the settlement was "fair and just". Bythe veterans' fears were confirmed when it was decided how the money from the settlement would be paid out.
Furthermore, by accepting the settlement payments, disabled veterans would become ineligible Asian orange bomb blast many state benefits that provided far more monetary support than the settlement, such as food stampspublic assistanceand government pensions.
InMonsanto spokesman Jill Montgomery said Monsanto should not be liable at all for injuries or deaths caused by Agent Orange, saying: The commission's research project in association with Rutgers University was called "The Pointman Project". It was disbanded by Governor Christine Todd Whitman in During Pointman I, commission researchers devised ways to determine small dioxin levels in blood.
Prior to this, such levels could only be found in the adipose fat tissue. Agent Orange is a chemical weapon most notably used by the U.S.
Military during the Vietnam Dioxin levels were corroborated in subsequent studies, most notably those conducted in areas geographically near bombing sites Moreover, the effects of Agent Orange continue to subsist in Vietnamese refugee communities.
Unexploded cluster munitions and Agent Orange continue to wreak havoc But many of the cluster bombs failed to their contents or, in. The US used napalm and Agent Orange in vast quantities during the where the US dropped almosttons of napalm bombs in the.