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Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

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A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine Latina women are in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of Latinas living in Latina women are Midwestern U. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination.

Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination.

Latina women are at increased risk of being diagnosed with cervical cancer compared to non-Latina white women.

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The Human Papillomavirus HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. The CDC recommends the vaccine for 11 to 12 year old males and females before they initiate sexual relations to maximize immunological protection. To reduce ethnic disparities in cervical cancer it is necessary to target populations at high risk with prevention efforts. Research conducted with Latina women Latina women are understand factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake such as knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, attitudes, barriers, and intentions indicates that there is high intentions to vaccinate but considerable variability in uptake, knowledge and attitudes by segments of the U.

For example, research has documented low knowledge about HPV and its link to cervical cancer 8 — 11 while other research suggests the opposite. Latino population 121315 as U. Latino population is heterogeneous regarding levels of income, educational attainment, and acculturation. For example, less acculturated Latinas are more likely to be less educated and of lower SES status than their more acculturated.

The purpose of this study is Latina women are contribute to the growing literature documenting factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake such as vaccination barriers, reasons for vaccination, intention to vaccinate, and vaccination uptake in a sample of Latinas living in Dane County, Wisconsin, a county characterized by rapid Latino population growth. Seventy percent of Latinos in Dane County are of Mexican descent. Since the s, immigrants experiencing political turmoil in Central America have steadily immigrated to Dane County.

We conducted a cross-sectional population-based phone survey with a random sample of Latinas living in Dane County, Wisconsin between October of and February of A list consisting of 2, phone numbers and mailing addresses believed to Latina women are associated with Hispanic households was purchased from Survey Sampling International.

Telephone numbers were the sampling unit and associated households were then screened for eligible sample members. A household was deemed eligible if there was at least one woman aged 18 or older who self-identified as Hispanic and self-reported being a resident of Dane County. During each call, interviewers determined whether or not a working residential telephone number had been reached. Each working number was then screened to verify it was associated with a household.

If there was more than one eligible person in the household, the respondent was randomly selected. Only the selected person could be interviewed and no substitutions were allowed. Households were called starting three days after the advance letter was sent. The response rate was Latina women are Interviewers received over 20 hours of training.

Twenty two interviewers were trained to administer the phone survey, Latina women are of which were bilingual. Initial call attempts were made in English. If during the initial call it was learned that Spanish was the preferred language and the interviewer was bilingual, the interview continued at the moment. Latina women are the interviewer was not bilingual, a call back time with a Spanish interviewer was scheduled.

THE LATINA PARADOX

The content of the survey was informed by health behavior theory and a review of the literature on HPV vaccine acceptability in the U. The Health Belief Model HBM 19 suggests that beliefs about the severity of a disease, perceived threat of contracting such disease, perceived benefits and consequences of taking action to prevent such disease, and reminders or cues to preventive action encountered in the environment influence the enactment of health protective behavior. Moreover, barriers such as lack of health insurance and access will also influence action.

Survey questions were originally developed in Spanish. Survey questions were then Latina women are based on pilot testing with 75 participants. Survey questions assessed standard demographics such as age yearseducational attainment, country of birth, length of residency in the U. Language of preference English vs. Spanish was assessed with the Marin and colleagues scale. Perceived threat and severity was assessed by asking how common and how severe is HPV? Perceived benefit was assessed by asking how important the protection conferred by the vaccine would be to their decision Latina women are vaccinate?

Intentions to vaccinate were "Latina women are" by asking all women, regardless of whether they had a daughter, to imagine they have a 9—18 year-old daughter who has not received the HPV vaccine and that their health care provider offered the vaccine. Then, women were asked: We assessed vaccination uptake only in women who reported having heard of the HPV vaccine and reported having one or more daughters between 9 and 18 years of age by asking them to self-report whether any of their daughters had been vaccinated against HPV.

Participants were Latina women with a mean age of Table 1 presents other demographic characteristics. The mean score for language acculturation was 2.

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We computed descriptive statistics to characterize the sample including means and frequencies. To elucidate factors associated with vaccination intentions, we computed a hierarchical linear regression equation for all women who reported being aware of HPV and the vaccine.

We regressed intentions on demographic characteristics education, health insurance coverage, access to a health care provider, and Latina women are acculturationperceived HPV threat and severity, benefits, barriers, norms, and cues to action. All variables were entered simultaneously and no variables were grouped Latina women are. To elucidate factors associated with uptake, we conducted a logistic regression analysis by regressing uptake on demographic characteristics education, health insurance coverage, access to a health care provider, and "Latina women are" acculturationperceived HPV threat and severity, benefits, barriers, norms, and cues to action.

All women who reported having a daughter reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. Only one mother reported not knowing whether she had vaccinated her daughter against HPV. Table 2 presents the results of the hierarchical linear regression analysis on intentions to vaccinate. R 2 change represents the amount of variance accounted for at each step of the equation. Other statistics summarize data at the final step of the equation. Data is for all participants who reported having heard about the HPV vaccine.

Table 3 presents the results of the logistic regression analysis on vaccination uptake only women who reported having a daughter. The aim of our study was to identify factors associated with HPV vaccination intentions and uptake among Latina women, with the ultimate goal of elucidating potential intervention targets to promote the HPV vaccine in a population at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

Prior research on HPV vaccine Latina women are with U. Latinas has shown that uptake, knowledge and attitudes vary considerably depending on which segments of the U. Latino population are sampled. In addition, only half of women who had daughters had vaccinated. Our findings support the role of cues to action as potential intervention targets to promote HPV vaccine acceptance.

This findings is consistent with research findings in the general U. Latina women are

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Recent research using spatial analysis to examine the association between high risk neighborhoods and their proximity to safety-net clinics offering HPV vaccination services indicates that having geographically accessible services does not predict HPV vaccine uptake 23 possibly suggesting that access to health care services is not a strong motivator of acceptance. Our findings also indicate that norms, in the form of knowing other parents who have vaccinated, was significantly associated with intentions to vaccinate.

The importance of norms on motivating vaccination in Latinas has been previously observed in a different sample. In addition, social network interventions to promote HPV vaccination among Latinas may be particularly effective. Social network interventions to promote prevention for other sexually transmitted infections among Latinas have shown promise. Our findings also indicate that personal beliefs about vaccine safety were inversely associated with vaccination intentions.

Furthermore, the personal beliefs about the severity of contracting HPV was also inversely associated with vaccination intentions. We argue that Latina women are time may be ripe to develop decision-aid Latina women are to promote informed decision-making and hence, the active consideration of benefits reduced risk of contracting a severe disease and risks of vaccination very low rates that an adverse outcome may occur following vaccination to increase vaccination uptake before ethnic disparities in cervical cancer rates exacerbate.

A particularly interesting findings is that concern that daughter may become sexually active after vaccination was significantly associated with intentions and importantly, uptake. To our knowledge only two published studies conducted with Latinas have found similar results.

Health care providers feel reluctant to discuss sexuality-related issues with parents. Our study has several limitations including the cross-sectional nature of our survey which precludes causality statements and assessing vaccination intentions Latina women are hypothetical daughters. However, studying HPV awareness and vaccination intentions in Latina women in general Latina women are important as they can benefit from catch-up vaccination.

Currently, catch-up vaccination is recommended for any woman or men who has not reached the age of Furthermore, Latina women knowledgeable about HPV and the vaccine and with positive attitudes toward vaccination can disseminate information among their social network.

Our findings with women who reported having a daughter should be taken with caution as our sample size was small. Findings should be replicated with a larger "Latina women are." Vaccination efforts need to be scaled up in high risk populations especially those characterized by a fast growing birth rate, such as Latinos.

Otherwise, disparities in cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers will continue challenging the U. In addition, interventions should Latina women are designed to encourage uptake of this primary prevention technology before ethnic disparities in cervical cancer exacerbate. Our findings point to potential avenues for interventions such as intervening with providers to increase their recommendation of the HPV vaccine while discussing safety and effectiveness rates and interventions that rely on social network methodologies.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Immigr Minor Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1. Julia LechugaPh. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Immigr Minor Health.

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Introduction Latina women are at increased risk of being diagnosed with cervical cancer compared to non-Latina white "Latina women are." A persistent gender-based wage gap continues to harm women, their Latina women are typically paid just 54 cents for every dollar paid to white, non-Hispanic men Very sexy and beautiful, These women are women of Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

Women of Latin American countries are also latina's. It is important to realize that. We recommend steps to harness the benefits of informal systems of prenatal care in Latino communities to meet the increasing needs of pregnant Latina women.

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